Many people believe that you shouldn't cook with olive oil due to its "smoke point". In fact, the smoke point of olive oil can be as high as 470⁰ F.
What influences the smoke point of olive oil?
The smoke points of cooking oils are related to the Free Fatty Acid (FFA) of the oil, with a lower acidity typically resulting in a higher smoke point.
- The FFA for extra virgin olive oil can range anywhere from very low, about 0.2%, up to the international standard limit of 0.8%. As such, the smoke point of extra virgin olive oils can be quite variable. The range is typically between 350⁰ - 410⁰ F.
- Refined oils like olive oil have very low FFA and thus more consistently higher smoke points. The range is between 390⁰ - 470⁰ F.
Cooking oil stability is more important than smoke point
In deciding which oil to use for cooking, the oil’s stability is more important than the smoke point. Olive oils are rich in oleic acid and minor compounds which make them very stable. Extra virgin olive oils contain polyphenols and antioxidants that fight the breakdown of the oil and the formation of free radicals. Because of this, extra virgin olive oil has been found to be the most stable cooking oil.
A study published in Food Chemistry compared free radical formation and oxidation (rancidity) when heating peanut oil and extra virgin olive oil. Measuring oxidation, the researchers found more heat was needed to start the oxidation process in the extra virgin olive oil than in the peanut oil. Regarding free radicals, both oils created about the same amount of free radicals at about the same rate over time (and the extra virgin olive oil used was stripped of polyphenols first).
It is a reasonable assumption that if the extra virgin olive oil had polyphenols intact when looking at free radicals, the polyphenols would fight free radical formation and the extra virgin olive oil would likely perform even better than the peanut oil.*
Heating any food will affect its final nutritional value – the hotter and longer the heat is on, the more nutritional value will be lost. This concept is not unique to olive oil use – but, olive oil can actually hold up better!
What is the definition of "high heat"
The average stovetop cooking temperature is about 350⁰ F, well within the smoke point range for both extra virgin olive oil and olive oil
- Extra virgin olive oil smoke point range 350⁰ - 410⁰ F
- Olive oil and light-tasting olive oil smoke point range 390⁰ - 470⁰ F
In conclusion, the smoke point of olive oil and extra virgin olive oil is high enough for home cooking and consumers who are concerned about an oil breaking down under heat should focus on picking a stable cooking oil.
* Tomassetti et al. (2013) Biosensors for monitoring the isothermal breakdown kinetics of peanut oil heated at 180 C. Comparison with results obtained for extra virgin olive oil. Food Chemistry, 140, 700- 710. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.10.131
- Smoke Point Is Not a Reliable Indicator of Cooking Oil Stability
- Why Olive Oil is the Best Oil for Frying
- The Culinary Institute of America Clarifies Guidance on Cooking With Olive Oil
- Olive Oil Retains Health Benefits During Cooking
- USDA Recommends Olive Oil for Deep Frying
- US News reports on olive oil smoke points